1853 map of Canadian Maritime Provinces

New England and Canada’s Maritime Provinces: Differences in Record Keeping, II

Editor’s Note: This post is by Dr. Terrence M. Punch, CM FRSAI, FIGRS, CG(C), the leading authority on immigration into Canada’s Maritime Provinces. In this two-part article, Dr. Punch explains the differences in record keeping between the New England states/colonies and the neighboring Maritimes, which some future New Englanders used as a stopping-off point. Part I of this article, originally published in last week’s “Genealogy Pointers” and here on this blog, concerned the differences between New England and Maritime census and citizenship records. Persons with Scottish or Irish ancestry should refer to the linked notes following this article for more information about possible family connections in the Maritimes.

A reminder from last week: There are four potential stumbling blocks when working with Canadian Maritime records. To reiterate them briefly (points one and two are in last week’s post): 1. Canada has no federal records prior to 1867. 2. Different citizenship – British subjects going and coming until 1947. 3. Canada has a different pattern of governance. 4. Canada is affected by a lack of/incomplete records.

 

Maritime Provinces – a Different Path to Governance

 

The third point is a different path of governance. Nova Scotia was founded as a royal province. Many of the thirteen colonies had been established by corporations, such as Virginia; by proprietary grants, as were Pennsylvania or Maryland; or by religious groups such as Plymouth Bay or Rhode Island. In Nova Scotia’s case there was no lord proprietor, nor a tradition of townships which elected their own officials and largely governed their local affairs. Control was vested in a governor and council appointed by the mother country. This model continued until the attainment of responsible government in 1848.

In 1759 Nova Scotia’s mainland was divided into five original counties: Halifax, Lunenburg, Annapolis, Kings and Cumberland, but merely for administrative convenience to permit the setting up of county land registries, probate courts and the appointment of local petty officials. Until the charter of Halifax as a city in 1841 there were no self­ governing municipalities in Nova Scotia, hence there isn’t much to seek in terms of local governmental records prior to the 1840s. New Brunswick was part of Nova Scotia until 1784.

Nova Scotia and New Brunswick did indeed have townships, mainly in areas settled by New Englanders in the 1760s and 70s. There survive a number of useful township books, in which at least the births and marriages of the proprietary or shareholding families were recorded, along with such information as the earmarks of cattle and the like. Some books were well kept while others were not, or have been lost. Continue reading…

fair use copyright

Fair Use Copyright Explained in Carmack’s “Guide”

When you find information in a book, article, or online source and you want to quote or paraphrase it in your genealogy, when must you cite the source? If you quote the information and cite the source, can you use as much of the information as you want? The answers to these questions fall under the copyright principle of “Fair Use.”

According to “The Copyright Permission and Libel Handbook,” by Lloyd J. Jassin and Steven C. Schechter, “Fair use is a privilege. It permits authors, scholars, researchers, and educators to borrow small portions of a copyrighted work for socially productive purposes without asking permission or paying a fee.”

Sharon DeBartolo Carmack addresses these and other concerns of fair use in her book, “Carmack’s Guide to Copyright & Contracts: A Primer for Genealogists, Writers & Researchers.” With this guide in hand, you will be able to determine:

  • What are your rights to your own genealogical discoveries?
  • What can/should you do if someone has infringed on your copyright?
  • When do you need to ask someone’s permission to reprint their work?
  • What are works in the public domain and how to find them?
  • Can someone tape your lecture without your permission?

While the guidelines of fair use are applied uniformly, as Ms. Carmack demonstrates, “the devil is in the details.” Fortunately, you can learn a lot more about the nuances of fair use and other important aspects of copyright law – especially as they impinge on the genealogist – in “Carmack’s Guide.” For example, while it is generally sufficient to cite the source you use, in some cases you must actually request the permission of the copyright holder. Similarly, even though a work may be in the public domain (e.g. the papers of George Washington), if an institution or an individual owns the originals, you may need to obtain permission and/or to pay a royalty fee before you can refer to the work in your family history.

In scarcely 100 pages, the “Guide” gently informs its readers about all aspects of copyright law. Each chapter lays out a specific principle of copyright or contracts and then addresses the topic with situations specifically applicable to genealogists.

Vetted by copyright attorney Karen Kreider Gaunt, “Carmack’s Guide to Copyright and Contracts” is the first comprehensive guide of its kind written expressly for genealogists. For more information on “Carmack’s Guide” click here.

Image Credit: By Columbia Copyright Office [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Editor’s Note: This article originally appeared in an archived edition of Genealogy Pointers. You can subscribe to receive this newsletter via the signup box on the sidebar of this blog.

 

780_Raynal_and_Bonne_Map_of_New_England_and_the_Maritime_Provinces_-_Geographicus_-_Canada-bonne-1780

Canadian Maritime Provinces and New England: Differences in Record Keeping, I

 

Editor’s Note: Terrence Punch is the leading authority on immigration into Canada’s Maritime Provinces. In this two-part article (part I published below) Dr. Punch explains the differences in record keeping between the New England states/colonies and the neighboring Maritimes, which some future New Englanders used as a stopping-off point. Persons with Scottish or Irish ancestry should refer to the link in Footnote #4 for more information about possible family connections in the Maritimes themselves. This post was written by Dr. Terrence M. Punch, CM, FRSAI, FIGRS, CG(C).

From the perspective of most of North America, the New England states and the Canadian Maritime provinces are near neighbors, sharing many cultural and genealogical similarities. Yet, an international border separates them and the story of their settlement and record keeping reveals some differences that affect genealogical research. Let’s look at four of these potential stumbling blocks.

The first thing to remember is that the Maritimes were not part of Canada until 1867 or afterwards, which means that there are no records at the federal level until then. This gives Americans about a 90-year head start. The second point to keep in mind is that people born in the Maritimes or coming there from the British Isles before 1947 were British subjects when they sailed from Britain and remained so over here. The third thing to remember is that the pattern of government evolved quite differently. A fourth matter to recognize is that record keeping was not very assiduously carried out here and that, when records were created, they were not always preserved for posterity. Each of these facts impinges on what records were required, and therefore, exist to be utilized by researchers now.

These facts are so important that we should reiterate them briefly: 1. We have no federal records prior to 1867. 2. British subjects going and coming until 1947. 3. We have a different pattern of governance. 4. Incomplete records.

Continue reading…

Early settlers

Early Settlers of Pennsylvania

Because of its unique immigration policy, Pennsylvania led the way in colonial America in the ethnic diversity of its early settlers. Among early settlers of Pennsylvania, we find English, Irish, and Dutch Quakers; German and Swiss Mennonites, Anabaptists, and Pietists; and Ulster Presbyterians, the Scotch-Irish frontiersmen.

The first “ethnic migration” to be officially documented – mainly in the form of ships’ passenger lists, records of indenture, naturalization records, land records, tax lists, and sundry church records – began in southeastern Pennsylvania between the 1680s and 1720s. These early records include the earliest passenger arrivals in Philadelphia in 1683, the Swiss and Rhineland arrivals in Philadelphia and a host of other groups. Immigrants from Germany’s Rhineland area and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland arrived in southeastern Pennsylvania by the thousands.

Looking for the most authoritative works on Pennsylvania’s German and Swiss immigration? Eshleman’s “Historic Background and Annals of the Swiss and German Pioneer Settlers of Southeastern Pennsylvania, and of their Remote Ancestors,” explores the background of the great sectarian movements in Germany, Switzerland and Holland, and focuses attention on the Mennonite families who later emigrated to Pennsylvania. As many as 300,000 German and Swiss immigrants and settlers have been identified in this work. In addition, all three volumes of “Pennsylvania German Church Records” can be found here, with volumes one, two and three also available individually. These records refer to approximately 91,000 individuals and include births, baptisms, marriages, and burials. They identify people and their relationships to one another–not only parents and children, husbands and wives, but witnesses and sponsors as well.

A more overarching resource on Pennsylvania’s immigration, the Family Archive CD provides a wealth of information on the earliest settlers of the Keystone State. This particular CD contains data on places of origin, dates of arrival, places of residence, ages, occupations, names of wives and children (with details of births, marriages, and deaths), and a host of other details derived from nine respected Pennsylvania reference works. This collection also contains a single electronic name index of 200,000 entries, which allows you to search all the volumes quickly and effortlessly.

Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, “Pioneer Settlers building Adventure Galley on the Youghiogheny.” This image is from the publication, “History of the Ordinance of 1787 and the Old Northwest Territory.”

Your Family Tree Explained

Your Family Tree Explained

The video, “Your Family Tree Explained” does a great job explaining the basics of family relationships, like how you are related to your great-grandmother’s siblings.

Enjoy the video by CGP Grey below:

A visit to the C.G.P. blog allows you to download a handy Cousin Calculator spreadsheet.

Following is the the script to the video cross-posted from the C.G.P. blog:

This is you, this is your family tree and this is your family tree explained.

You have parents and your parents have parents, these are your grandparents who also have parents, your great-grandparents. Keep adding parents, keep adding adding ‘greats’.

For every ‘g’ in the name there is one generation in-between you and that person.

Grand parents? One ‘g’ one generational inbetweener. Great, great, great grand parents? Four ‘g’s four inbetweeners.

Continuing with the basics you have siblings and so do your parents: these are your Aunts and Uncles.

Up the tree you may call these people your great aunts and uncles, but your grand parents’ siblings are really your grand aunts and uncles. ‘Greats’ are reserved for the levels above grand. Your great-grand parents’ siblings are your great grand aunts and uncles.

Now down the tree your siblings’ children are your nieces and nephews — collectively niblings — and you are their aunt or uncle. Their children are your grand nieces and nephews and you are their grand aunt or uncle.

We’ve gone up and we’ve gone down and now it’s time to go sideways.

When you get married, you get everyone’s favorite: in-laws! You are on the same level of the family tree as your spouse’s siblings — you’re a kind of pseudo-sibling — all the new family’s relationships to you are the same as to your spouse, but they get the in-law suffix.

It’s pretty straight forward except for one case: your spouse’s siblings are your siblings-in law. But are your siblings’s-in-law’s spouses also your siblings-in-law? It’s a little unclear.

Alright: enough with in-laws, it’s on to the reason you’re probably watching this video: cousins.

Your Aunt and Uncle’s Children are your cousins, but there are many kinds of cousins and to better understand them we need to simplify this family tree and think downward.

Here’s you, your children and your grand children. The grand children are first cousins to each other. And their children, your great grand children, are second cousins to each other, and so on.

The cousin number is the same as the ‘g’ rule: it tells you how many inbetweeners until the connection on the family tree. Fourth cousins cousins, four inbetweeners a shared great-great-great-grandparent.

According to the rule, your first cousin and you connect at your grand parent. Second cousins share a great, grandparent connection. Just match the number with the g’s and you’re all set.

Simple, huh?

Side note here: continuing this rule in reverse means siblings can technically call each other 0th cousins. Which they totally should. And you are you own negative first cousin? Weird.

All done here now, nothing more to talk about… oh right… the once-removed thing.

You may have noticed cousins are all on the same level. ‘Removed’ describes how many levels apart people are. What’s the family connection between these two? Start by taking the smaller cousin number — 1st cousins — and count the levels down — ‘once removed’.

These are first cousins, twice removed. Thrice removed.

Second cousins, once removed.

Doing all this on our simplified drawing of your decedents is a bit too easy as most family trees look more like this. The rules are still the same, 1st cousins, 2nd cousins, and the removed — but it’s a bit harder to tell quickly who exactly is your second-cousin twice removed, or your great-grand aunt… in law.

To help there is a chart you can download which will both make it much easier to figure out what grand-nibling or cousin removed you are to anyone at the next family reunion more easily and, obviously, show how cool you are.

Now we’re really done… unless you start thinking about the math of all of these family members — just how many great-great-great-great- grandparents do you have? 64?

And those great x grand parents had kids, giving you a whole lot of cousins — this chart happens to stop at 10th cousins, of which if you do may have more than 2,000? Which seems like too many, but these numbers both have big, possibly unsettling asterisks attached to them which we will talk more about in part 2: family genetics explained.

This work is reprinted as it appears on the C.G.P. Grey blog. Please visit this blog for more interesting and educational videos on a variety of topics.

Image Credit: YouTube