name variations

Name is the Game: Maiden Names and Name Variation

Editor’s Note: The post below includes an excerpt from chapter 3 of Lloyd Bockstruck’s book, The Name Is the Game: Onomatology and the Genealogist.

While we wish we could share the entire book here, we also want to mention some of the other valuable material in Bockstruck’s publication. “Chapter 2: Forenames” discusses the ancestral clues that are inherent in names. Did you know, for example, that the German forenames Franz and Xavier were predominantly used by Roman Catholics? Similarly, if the father of an unborn child died before the baby’s birth, the child might have been named Ichabod. And Doctor was often used as a nickname for the seventh son in a family because it was believed that a seventh son had an intuitive knowledge of the use of herbs.

In our recently featured Part I excerpt from Lloyd Bockstruck‘s book, The Name is the Game, we focused on the history of surnames. Pulled from the same chapter on surnames, the following excerpt discusses maiden name and spelling variations, and how these can affect your research.

Enjoy Part II below:

Maiden Names

In the British colonies outside of New England, civil records of vital statistics may not have been maintained and religious records may not have survived. When the available court records do not reveal the maiden name of a wife, it could be because she changed her condition but not her surname. William Hastings, the son of Henry Hastings, was born in 1759, married his first cousin, Arney Hastings, 26 October 1785 in Amelia County, Virginia. Her father, William Hastings, gave his consent. Fortunately, the civil marriage record survived to make it possible to identify her maiden name.

Olive Branch married his kinswoman Verlinche Branch in Henrico County, Virginia but no civil or church record exists to prove her maiden name. The bride’s forename was one peculiar to the Branch family and was a very good clue for identifying her maiden name.

Spelling Fixation

It is a mistaken belief that different spellings ofa surname applied to people from different families. A good example is Sir Walter Raleigh. His surname became the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County. Another American city named in his honor is Rolla, Missouri although the spelling tends to conceal the connection.

The name of Sir Walter Raleigh has appeared in written records as Raghley, Raghlie, Raileigb, Rale, Raleagh, Raleghe, Raleghus Ralego, Raleigh, Raleighe, Raleile. Raleygh, Ralight, Ralighe, Ralle, Ralleg, Rallleigh, Raughleigh, Raughley, Raughleye, Raughlie, Raughly, Raulaeus, Raule, Rauleghe, Rawligh, Rawlight, Rawlighe, Rawly, Rawlye,Rawlyghe, Raylie, Raylye, Raylygh, Reightly, Reighly, Rauley, Rhaleigh, Rolye, Wrawley, and Wrawly.

In the aftermath of the Civil War George Wise published his work, The Autograph of William Shakespeare (Philadelphia: P. E. Abel, 1869) giving 9,000 spelling variations of the most celebrated individual in the history of the English language. No name is lacking in variant spellings and close attention must be paid to all possibilities. Andrew Jackson said a man who could not spell his name more than three ways was not worth knowing, so Shakespeare falls within that criterion.

Image credit: Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh by Nicholas Hilliard [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

 

germans, german genealogy

German Genealogy – “The Germans and Germany”

Editor’s Note: This article is condensed from the chapter, “The Germans and Germany” in the brand new 5th Edition of Mr. Angus Baxter’s classic how-to book, In Search of Your German Roots. Readers should note that in the interest of brevity, a number of tables in the book which describe the migration and distribution of the German population and the contemporary archival holdings of other nations that have a bearing on German genealogy have been omitted from this except. This excerpt is part one of two we will share with our readers. 

The development and coalescence of the German nation took many centuries. The word “Deutsch” (German) was first used in the eighth century, but it only referred to the spoken language of the area known as eastern Franconia. This empire reached its height of importance under the Emperor Charlemagne (Karl der Grosse), and after his death in 814 it disintegrated. The western section eventually became the area we now know as France. The eastern section varied in area over the centuries, but the main area–the heartland–became known as the Deutschland (the land of the Germans). By 911 the Duke of Franconia was elected King of the Franks, and later King of the Romans. By the 11th century the area became known as the Roman Empire, and by the 13th the Holy Roman Empire. In the 15th century the words “German nation” were added. Continue reading…

Scots-Irish descent, Hatfield, Scotch-Irish

The Origins of the Scots-Irish

Editor’s Note: The following is an excerpt discussing the migration patterns amongst the Scots-Irish by Dr. David Dobson, who has devoted years to the extraction of information pertaining to the Scots-Irish (or Scotch-Irish). Among his well researched publications is Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725. In Two Parts [Part One & Part Two]. This work identifies some 1,200 Scots who resided in Ulster between the early 1600s and the early 1700s. In a number of cases, David Dobson provides information on the person’s spouse, children, local origins, landholding, and, of course, the source of the information. Also of interest see Searching for Scotch-Irish Roots in Scottish Records, 1600-1750, which is a roadmap to the available sources in Scottish libraries and archives that could assist persons of Scots-Irish descent. Please see the end of this article for purchase information for other publications on this subject. 

Since the medieval period there had been a continuous small-scale migration from Scotland to Ireland, many of the migrants being ‘gallowglasses’ or mercenary Highland soldiers. From the fourteenth century onward the Scottish Clan Donald significantly increased its power and influence in the western Highlands and Islands. The head of Clan Donald was the Lord of the Isles. The territory controlled by Clan Donald extended to Ireland when, through marriage, it established a branch in County Antrim in the fifteenth century. Scotland’s King James IV successfully reduced the power of the Lordship of the Isles–which he abolished in 1493–and the power of Clan Donald diminished. Clan Campbell began to expand its lands in Argyll, where the MacDonalds had once been supreme. This contributed toward an exodus of MacDonalds and their septs to Ireland.

The settlement by Scots in Ireland during the early modern period began in the late sixteenth century. Turlough Luineach O’Neill married Agnes Campbell, widow of James McDonnell of the Glens and the Isles, and resulting from this in 1580 a force of 2000 ‘Redshanks’ [Highland Scots mercenaries] came to Ireland. The objective was to support the native Irish in their struggle against the Tudor English, who were attempting to gain control of the whole island of Ireland. These fighting men differed from the later Scottish immigrants in that they were Gaelic-speaking Highland Catholics. These men are likely to have been recruited in Argyll and other territories controlled by Clan Donald and would have sailed from various bays and sea-lochs there. The lack of contemporary records, however, means that, apart from the leaders of this expedition, the majority of men or their origins cannot be identified.

The next wave of emigrants from Scotland arrived in Down and Antrim as a result of two Ayrshire lairds, James Hamilton and Hugh Montgomery, acquiring land there from Con O’Neill in 1606. Around the same time, Randall McDonnell, a descendant of the Highland redshanks, was granted much of northern Down. Despite being a Catholic, McDonnell encouraged Lowland Scots Protestants to settle there. The establishment of the Plantation of Ulster itself was a direct consequence of the Flight of the Earls, when the elite of the indigenous Irish abandoned their struggle with England and took refuge in the Catholic lands of Europe in 1607. King James then divided their lands and allocated them to English and Scottish landowners, known as “undertakers,” who undertook to settle the lands with British Protestants.

The Scottish landowners overwhelmingly came from the counties of Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Kirkcudbrightshire, and Dumfries-shire and would have recruited settlers for their Ulster estates from among their own territories in Scotland. For example, Hamilton and Montgomery would have brought people from Ayrshire and in all likelihood shipped them through the port of Ayr, while the MacClellands enlisted settlers from their lands in Galloway and are likely to have shipped them via Kirkcudbright to Londonderry.

Scottish migration to Ireland unfolded in distinct stages, firstly the Highlanders and Islanders in the late sixteenth century, then the Hamilton-Montgomery Lowlanders, followed by the Plantation period from 1610 to 1630, in the 1650s following the close of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, in the 1670s following the failure of the Covenanters Risings in Scotland, and finally in the 1690s resulting from successive poor harvests in Scotland. While the Highlanders arriving in the late sixteenth century were Catholic, the Lowland Scots arriving during the seventeenth century were mainly Protestant, Episcopalian at first and after 1641 overwhelmingly Presbyterian, apart from a few Catholics such as the Hamiltons, from Paisley, and their servants who settled in Strabane.

The migrants of the seventeenth century sailed from various ports in southwest Scotland, and landed in Ulster ports from Strangford to Londonderry. The Scottish ports were Girvan, Ballantrae, Irvine, Port Glasgow, Ayr, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries, Glasgow, Port Patrick, Largs, and Greenock. These ports originally were engaged in trade or fishing, but as Scottish settlement in Ireland increased, trade increased, and with more merchant ships bound for Ireland the opportunity to emigrate there increased. East Ulster ports had strong links with Largs, Ayr, and Kirkcudbright; Ayr also had such with Belfast and Londonderry. The Scottish port books of the period, though far from comprehensive, do reveal trading routes and the commodities exported or imported; however, little or no data survives that would identify passengers. Fortunately, burgh and church records (as well as certain family papers) do on occasion identify people bound for Ireland, and even refugees returning after the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The port books, the kirk session records, and certain family or estate papers can be consulted in the National Archives of Scotland. The port books of Londonderry, Coleraine, Carrickfergus and the Lecale ports for the years 1612-1615 have been transcribed and published, which provides insight to the trading links and therefore immigration routes at the time of the Plantation.

Additional publications by Dr. David Dobson on the Scots-Irish:

Later Scots-Irish Links

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725, Part Three 

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725, Part Four

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725, Part Five  

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725, Part Six 

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725, Part Seven

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725. Part Eight  

Scots-Irish Links, 1575-1725. Part Nine

Image Credit: The Hatfield Clan of the Hatfield-McCoy-feud, a both prominent and infamous West Virginia family of Scots-Irish ancestry. Public domain, via wikimedia commons.

castle garden, before Ellis Island

Before Ellis Island: Passenger Arrivals at Castle Garden, New York

Editor’s note: The late Carolyn L. Barkley discusses the changing conditions for immigrants arriving in the United States before Ellis Island was the main point of entry. Information includes the challenges one may face trying to locate an ancestor who arrived before 1892, how you may find them, and valuable resources to make your search easier. The history of Castle Garden is extremely relevant, and information related to searching those records is included for convenience.  

Finding the original U.S. port of entry arrival record for ancestors can be a difficult process. For many years, I have searched for the passenger arrival record of my elusive great-great-grandmother Kate Duncan who arrived in the U.S. from Liverpool (assumed to be her departure site, not place of residence) with her father George, her brother George H., and step-mother, Mary in the early 1850s. Although I know they were living in New Haven by 1854, I have as yet been unable to determine a year and port of entry for the family, despite checking microfilm for likely ports such as Boston, Providence, and New Haven. My search has prompted me to learn more about passenger arrival records, ship manifests, and the legislation that governed them. One of the best resources about these records can be found in Mike Tepper’s American Passenger Arrival Records.

Immigration to the U.S. began to increase dramatically in the early 1820s. With the increase in passengers, came an increase in the diseases they carried to America as well as the number of deaths from natural causes, as well as shipboard conditions. In order to control these problems, Congress passed the Steerage Act of March 2, 1819 to help limit the number of passengers carried on each ship. This act required that passenger ships sailing to the U. S. from foreign ports provide lists of arriving passengers and that the Custom Service process these lists on arrival. Beginning in 1820, a ship’s captain prepared the list and filed it with the collector of customs at the port of arrival. These records have been microfilmed and are available in the Records of the U.S. Customs Services, 1820-ca. 1891. Ports included in this record group are Atlantic, Gulf and Great Lakes Ports (M334, M575); Baltimore (M326, M255, M596); Boston (M265, M277); New Orleans (T527, M259, M272); New York (M261, M237, M1066); and Philadelphia (M360, M425).  As the records are usually arranged chronologically by date of arrival (probably the very fact you don’t know), using the soundex indices for the actual lists is essential. The best source for microfilm information can be found in the National Archives publication Immigrant & Passenger Arrivals: a Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications (1991) and can be ordered on the National Archives website. A big caveat is that the card file index images are some of the ugliest microfilm images known to man, with many totally unreadable. It takes a great deal of research stamina to use these records on microfilm. Continue reading…

Ship passenger lists

The Pitfalls of Passenger Lists

Michael Tepper is a leading authority on passenger and immigration lists in the U.S. He is the author of “American Passenger Arrival Records,” which is a road map through the tens of millions of records and resources documenting immigrant arrivals from the time of the earliest settlements to the passage of the Quota Acts of the 1920s.

The following is an excerpt of an interview from Genealogy Pointers about some of the problems researchers run into when they are on the trail of an immigrant ancestor.

GP: “What would you say is the most common misconception about passenger lists?”

MT: “Almost certainly it is the belief that people had their names changed when they got to Ellis Island. In fact, immigrants did not change their names unless they applied for a change of name by deed poll at a courthouse or when they were naturalized. During processing at Ellis Island, officials had the actual ships’ manifests in front of them. They called each immigrant by name, according to the manifests, and often put a check next to the name after it had been called. So the passenger records are an exact reflection of the immigrants’ identities before they crossed the Atlantic, not after.”

GP: “Are there other false assumptions about passenger lists?”

MT: “Among Americans of relatively recent ancestry, say researchers whose immigrant forebears arrived after 1850, there is the belief that official passenger lists must also exist for the Colonial and Early National periods of our history. The fact is they don’t. No colony-wide or U.S. law requiring the compiling of immigration records was enacted before 1820. The only immigration records prior to 1820 to have survived are really kind of quirky. For instance, we have lists of German immigrants who immigrated to colonies like Pennsylvania because the authorities, intent on keeping tabs on these newcomers, required them to take a loyalty oath. Also, some of the most important published immigration records are not immigration records at all, but land records, such as Nugent’s “Cavaliers And Pioneers” and Skordas’s “Early Settlers Of Maryland,” which identify early immigrants taking up land grants.”

GP: “Let’s turn that situation around. Can you think of an instance when surviving records are frequently overlooked?”

MT: “Yes. Here’s a common mistake that’s made by researchers hoping to find an ancestor during the 1840s. Let’s say the genealogist is looking for a Sean O’Shaunessey, who is supposed to have come from Dublin to New York in June of 1849. The researcher finds a Sean in the official Customs Passenger Lists; however, because the record indicates that his country of origin is Great Britain, not Ireland, the genealogist concludes, mistakenly, that this Sean is not his relative. This is an error that could have been avoided had the researcher known that shipping agents, or bursars, or others who were responsible for compiling the ships’ manifests were far more likely to write ‘Great Britain’ and not Ireland as Sean’s country of origin during the 1840s because Ireland was, in fact, officially part of Great Britain.”

Image credit: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration