Ireland, Carlin Clan, Eogan

The Carlin Clan of North West Ireland

Editor’s note: The following brief history of the Carlin clan associated with County Donegal and County Derry is indicative of what the reader can expect to encounter with each of the 300+ histories of surnames compiled by Brian Mitchell in his book, The Surnames of North West Ireland: Concise Histories of the Major Surnames of Gaelic and Planter Origin. The author believes that these histories document the surname origins of over 80 percent of people with roots in North West Ireland. These surname histories are also relevant to those whose ancestors originated in the northern province of Ulster (i.e., Counties Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone in Northern Ireland, and Counties Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland).

Please enjoy the following post below, by Brian Mitchell. Remember that Carlin is just one of the hundreds of surnames from Anderson and Devine to Quigley and Young summarized in The Surnames of North West Ireland, and may help you on your search for Irish ancestry: 

The Carlin Clan of North West Ireland: A Representative Surname History

The O’Carlin sept trace their lineage to Eogan, son of the 5th century High King of Ireland, Niall of the Nine Hostages, who ruled from the Hill of Tara, County Meath. Eogan and his brother Conall Gulban conquered northwest Ireland, ca.425 AD, capturing the great hill-fort of Grianan of Ailech in County Donegal.

Eogan, styled “King of Ailech,” established his own kingdom in the peninsula in County Donegal still called Inishowen (Innis Eoghain or Eogan’s Isle) after him. His descendants, known as the Cenel Eoghain (the race of Owen), became the principal branch of the Northern Ui Neill (descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages). The Cenel Eoghain in the next five centuries expanded to the east and south from their focal point in Inishowen.

Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt a system of hereditary surnames that developed from a more ancient system of clan or sept names. The surname was formed by prefixing either Mac (son of) or O (grandson or descendant of) to the ancestor’s name. Carlin and O’Carolan, an earlier anglicized form of the name, are derived from Gaelic O Caireallain.

The O’Carlins were the leading sept of Clann Diarmata, i.e. Clan Dermot. In County Donegal they were erenaghs, i.e. hereditary stewards, of the church lands of Clonleigh in the barony of Raphoe. They also seized a portion of O’Gormley territory around Donaghmore, County Donegal, in the late 12th century.

Clan Dermot was, in turn, a branch of Clan Connor Magh Ithe (Connor was a direct descendant of Eogan). Magh Ithe is the rich countryside stretching southward from Inishowen, later known as the Laggan district in east Donegal. In the 10th century AD the families of Clan Connor moved out from the cramped territory of Magh Ithe and established themselves in County Derry, in the kingdom of Keenaght, to the north of the Sperrin Mountains, from the Foyle to the Bann rivers.

In the process they ousted the Cianachta whose leading sept was the O’Connors of Glengiven in the Roe Valley.

By the 12th century, when the process of conquest ends, the various septs of Clan Connor were firmly settled in County Derry. Clan Dermot, who gave their name to the parish of Clondermot or Glendermott, and its chief family O’Carrolan were firmly established to the south of the Faughan river.

The O’Carolans were very powerful in the neighbourhood of Derry during the 12th century and were mentioned frequently in the Annals of Ireland. In 1177 Niall O’Gormly, Lord of the men of Magh Ithe, was slain by Donough O’Carellan and the Clandermot in the middle of Derry Columbkille. In the same year a Norman raiding party led by John de Courcy slew Conor O’Carellan, chief of Clandermot. In 1200 Egneghan O’Donnell, Lord of Tirconnell, defeated Clan Dermot in a battle at Rosses Bay, a short distance north of Derry.

The surnames Carlin, O’Carlin, and O’Carolan have also been anglicized to Carleton. This can cause confusion as the Carletons, also recorded as Charlton, were one of the great riding clans on the English side of the Scottish Borders in Cumbria and Northumberland.

Image credit: The plaque marking the resting place of King Eógan mac Néill in Iskaheen, County Donegal, Ireland. By Radosław Botev (Own work) [Attribution], via Wikimedia Commons.

colonial maryland, white slave, white slave children

Origins and Descendants of White Slave Children of Colonial Maryland and Virginia

Editor’s Note: The following post is written by Genealogical Publishing Company author Dr. Richard Hayes Phillips. His books tread into territory that has been previously underreported, colonial white slave children. In his post below, Dr. Phillips discussing some of his research efforts that went into the making of White Slave Children of Colonial Maryland and Virginia: Birth and Shipping Records, as well as the reasons behind writing this book.

The Genealogist as Detective: Richard Hayes Phillips and the Search for the Origins and Descendants of White Slave Children of Colonial Maryland and Virginia

Some time ago I published a book — Without Indentures: Index to White Slave Children in Colonial Court Records  — in which are identified, by name, 5290 “servants” without indentures, transported without their consent, against their will, to the Chesapeake Bay, and sentenced to slavery by the County Courts of colonial Maryland and Virginia.  The younger the child, the longer the sentence.  These were white kids, with surnames different from those of their masters. Continue reading…

immigrants on ship, passenger list

How to find your ancestor without a passenger list

No Passenger List?

No official U.S. government passenger lists exist prior to 1820. What miscellaneous lists that have survived and been transcribed or published cover only a fraction of the immigrants who arrived in the Americas before 1820. If you do not possess a passenger list for your immigrant ancestor, are you at the end of your hunt? Not necessarily.

Let’s say that you have traced your Scottish immigrant ancestor to the city of Baltimore in 1816. You are hoping to continue your research abroad, but you don’t have a passenger list stating the name of your forebear, his/her ports and dates of embarkation and disembarkation, and so forth. What can you turn to in place of the missing list? The identity of the ship that disembarked in Baltimore close to the time your ancestor was living there. Continue reading…

colonial New York, Genealogy, Family History

Colonial New York Genealogy

If your ancestors were living in New York state at the time of the American Revolution, your line of descent is likely to take on one of a handful of forms. If your immigrant ancestor arrived before 1664, you are likely to be descended from a Dutch inhabitant of old New Netherland. After that date, however, tracing your Colonial New York genealogy down the line means your antecedents are far more likely to have been born in Great Britain (England, Wales, or to a lesser extent, Scotland or Ireland). They could also have been New Englanders who migrated to New York from Massachusetts or Connecticut, once New York was under English rule.

After the turn of the 18th century, a number of emigrants from the German Palatinate began to make their way to New York’s Mohawk Valley; however, as late as 1790 only one percent of New York heads of household were of German or French descent. On the eve of the Revolution, New Yorkers were concentrated in New York City, Long Island, and along the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, and the state trailed Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina in total population.

This picture changed dramatically by the early 1800s, when New York’s population surpassed that of all other states, thanks to the pull of its extraordinary harbor, industries, hinterland, and internal improvements, as well as to the inexorable push of Western European emigrants vying for greater opportunities in a free land.

If you’re researching early New York roots, Genealogical.com (the parent publishing company who sponsors this blog) offer a wide variety of publications you could consider. Running the gamut from statewide to regional to countywide and New York City titles, this extensive collection covers they key record sources (wills, deeds, military records, marriages, etc.) that are crucial to 17th- and 18th-century New York family history. In the aggregate they touch on well over 1,000,000 New York ancestors. In the absence of official New York public records, some of titles for Upstate New York fill in the gaps, and the multi-volume sets of New York genealogies, mostly compiled from obscure, unindexed periodicals will save you an enormous amount of time in your research.

There are also some wonderful online resources dealing with New York history, such as the New York History Blog.

Image credit: Engraving depiction colonial New York councilors Nicholas Bayard, Stephanus van Cortlandt, and Frederick Phillipse attempting to quiet revolutionary fears at the time of Leisler’s Rebellion in New York City, 1689. By Art: Alfred Fredericks; Engraving: Albert Bobbett [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Ayr genealogy

The People of the Scottish Burghs: Ayr Genealogy

The Scottish city of Ayr, within the historic county of Ayrshire in Southwest Scotland, has a rich history. It is one of the most agriculturally fertile regions in Scotland, and has enjoyed prominence for its crop bounty as well as a later history as an industrial hub. Ayr is now a popular seaside resort town, bringing tourists just the short distance from Glasgow to walk its beachfront and charming esplanade. Before it became a post-industrial tourist spot, the port of Ayr served as a major hub for Scott and Scotch-Irish emigration to the West Indies and the Americas, as well as in the settlement of Ulster. If you need to track your Scottish or Scotch-Irish relative back to the seventeenth century, you may find a challenge in the records related to Ayr genealogy. We’ll discuss a bit about Ayr, as well as one particular resource, by the acclaimed author Dr. David Dobson, that can help.

FamilySearch has a concise lay of the land for Ayr:

Ayrshire, an extensive county on the western coast of Scotland, is bounded on the north by Renfrewshire, on the east by the counties of Lanark and Dumfries, on the south by the stewartry of Kirkcudbright and the county of Wigton, and on the west by the Firth of Clyde and the Irish Channel. It is about sixty miles in length and nearly thirty in extreme breadth. It comprised an area of about 1600 square miles or 1,024,000 acres. It includes forty-six parishes and is divided into the districts of Carrick, Kyle, and Cunninghame. It contains the royal burghs of Ayr (the county town) and Irvine. There are thirteen towns and numerous large and populous villages.

Ayr was founded in 1205 based on a charter granted by King William the Lion. Initially it was a small village around a royal castle, but by the 17th century it had grown to become an important market town and a leading port on the west coast of Scotland. Ayr, as a burgh, was semi-autonomous, with its burgesses controlling much of the social and economic life of the community. The burgesses were all male and came from the elite of the urban society. Burgesses were either craftsmen or merchants; they elected a council that was headed by a provost.

From the medieval period onward, Ayr had shipping links with England, Ireland, France, and Spain, and from the mid-17th century onward, it had links with the West Indies and North America. During the 17th century, when substantial numbers of Scots crossed over to Ireland to settle, much of this traffic went via the port of Ayr, thus tying the port to the Ulster settlements as well. At the same time, trading links were established with the West Indies and the Thirteen Colonies, which facilitated emigration there.

The Scottish Census did not begin until well into the 19th Century, presenting challenges to the researcher relying on those records for information. However, given it’s importance to Ulster, and through two centuries of emigration to the Americas, it’s crucial to find another way to track your relative through Ayr.

In The People of the Scottish Burghs: The People of Ayr, 1600-1799, Dr. David Dobson’s latest book in his series on inhabitants of the Scottish burghs during the 17th and 18th centuries, he references between 1,500 and 2,000 inhabitants in the city or Ayr during the period. Many of the men listed in this book were burgesses of Ayr. Most of the entries herein provide a man’s name, occupation, a date, and the source. In many instances we are also given the name of at least one or more relatives, date of birth and/or death, names of witnesses, education, or more.

While he doesn’t claim it’s an exhaustive list of all residents, The People of the Scottish Burghs: The People of Ayr, 1600-1799 provides a critical piece of information not found elsewhere. Thanks to Dr. Dobson’s hard work, the distillation of hard-to-find data found in disparate records is presented in one accessible place for your research.

Image Credit: Pinkerton’s extraordinary 1818 map of the southern part of Scotland. Covers from England in the south to Angus Shire in the north. Includes parts of Adjacent England and Ireland. Covers the entire region in considerable detail with political divisions and color coding at the regional level. Identifies cities, towns, castles, important battle sites, castles, swamps, mountains and river ways. Title plate and mile scale in the lower left quadrant. Drawn by L. Herbert and engraved by Samuel Neele under the direction of John Pinkerton. This map comes from the scarce American edition of Pinkerton’s Modern Atlas, published by Thomas Dobson & Co. of Philadelphia in 1818. By John Pinkerton [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.